Monday, December 6, 2010


Judas, Hero or Villain?

By NamakandoNalikandoSinyama(Proudly From Planet Agnostika)

“May we forever resist, yes, even to the death, whatever force inhibits us from engaging our cranial department in critical thought only this way will our brain grow to liberating Zenithal heights.” – Namakando Nalikando Sinyama

The rendering of the whole story of salvation and how it was designed to come about does indeed make exciting reading. But, for a free-thinking mind like mine, it does more to raise serious prodding questions about the entire arrangement. What any honest Christian will agree with is that Jesus did not exactly volunteer to come and die for mankind. He cried and resisted the death that was coming upon him; this was a clear protestation of the whole mission. He has, as you probably know, been credited with these words as he fervently prayed, “Father, if thou art willing, let this cup pass from me; yet not my will, but thine, be done.” (Mt. 26:39; Mk. 14:36; Lk. 22:42; Jn. 18:1). This was when Jesus lay prostrate on the ground in the Garden of Gethsemane. I kindly entreat you to cut the man some slack here; he was but human both in flesh and in blood. He was only instructed or sent down to do this deed. Whether or not he wanted to willingly come to perform the ultimate sacrifice can only be deduced from how he dealt with his pursuers. He could have more than once resisted the premature fulfilment of his mission. However, when Judas Iscariot assisted in the quickening of his (Jesus’) ending by betraying him and surrendering him into the hands of his captors, the world decide to criminalise him and all the people involved in the expediting his death. Herein lays the gross injustice I find. Look, if it was indeed predestined that Jesus had to die, was is it to be through a cardiac arrest or normally going through the whole process of senescence and eventually succumbing to death from old age? What Judas was could well have been a mere cog in the whole chain of the theatre curtain unfolding before the human race. Therefore, to condemn Judas or any human who was instrumental in the fulfilment of this dramatic end of the life of one of the most influential figures in the whole world is a total lack of understanding, reason and an utter misunderstanding of the basic Laws of Cause and Effect. Do Christians realise that according to the dogma taught to them the whole of human life is but an experiment meant to establish who has more influence over humanity, God or Satan. We are but Lilliputian pawns in a tag of war of sorts where Satan has been allowed to tempt us to join his dark side. As for those who end up resisting his machinations being rewarded with everlasting life in a paradise to live in ethereal bliss eternally. There are some who naively look forward to being beamed up in Star Trek fashion to live in heaven where they say they will be singing or praising God forever! Funny how i thought there were enough angels doing that very job as we speak. And there has never been a call from the heavenly orchestra for the reinforcements of tenors. As for those who manage to cross over what awaits them is eternal damnation in a fiery torment of Gehena! Their torture is said last forever, well, then that fire may not be as hot as it is reputed. The reason is, carbon-based proteinous human flesh does not really take that much heat and it quickly gets charred giving out that acrid smell and decomposes into a darkish sooty material in no time. But if the theory is such that the once loving God has now prepared a special fire which merely permanently scorches the wretched convicted sinners but does not consume so as to serve as a way of inflicting the maximum pain, then this disturbing imagery leaves me at a loss for words. What would this be in aid of? Is it to serve as an amusement activity or just what would be the logic of it all? The reason is that, this is so akin to Moloch or is it just my relapse of de ja vu attacks hitting me again. Why won’t they understand this? What must we do to help them because i hate to say this in Christendom thinking is not encouraged much . You just have to believe and the lord knows it all. What is constantly thrown in your face ad nauseum is the notion that ‘never question God's wisdom,’ you know that kind of baloney. As a result most profess INSINCERE faith founded on fear of Hell and naivety more than anything. The prospect of hell it must be here stated is what has more than anything spurred most Christians into mass unfounded and insincere faith and belief of concepts which may not always agree with their thinking. The concept of an inferno awaiting the unrepentant souls happens to show up or is prominent in most prominent religions which seem to share their origins. Religions like Islam, Judaism and Christianity have different versions of this anti-climactic end of the life on this planet as we have known it. Please try to occasionally use your senses and discerning mind’s eye, only then will you truly come to appreciate the depth and value of the teachings of the Man Yeshua(Jesus)so grossly misrepresented by folks who claim to follow his steps. If he was of an immaculate birth, sinless and god-like or even God himself which is very unlike you and I, then to strive to be Christian or Christ like is chasing a red herring,being on a wild goose chase or trying catch your own shadow. To also believe that he made 3 fishes and 5 loaves of bread which feed 5000 people leaving crumbs enough to fill up baskets is insulting the giver of intelligence! Each religious person should ask themselves why they believe; to paraphrase, does one worship God because of the prospect of a reward of paradise existence which he forever dangles in their face like the proverbial alluring carrot? Does one worship God so as to escape the sizzling encounter with a pitch folk wielding fiend whose idea of kicks is poking people into the flames? Does one worship God because of the current situation they find themselves in from which they wish for some much needed respite which only God can offer? Does one worship God as a show of gratitude for their better fortunes they find themselves in which they have credited God for his unending benevolence? Do they go to worship God once in a week on Saturday or Sunday to shake off the boredom of the weekend by meeting old acquaintances after adorning themselves in their best apparel? Do you go to worship God because like I used to do it so as to avoid the other congregants from darkening my front door steps as they do their rounds to establish why they did not see me at the meetings? I was going to church for all the wrong reasons. Or do they worship God because they have finally come to the conclusion that he is truly loving and deserves their unreserved and unconditional adoration without them expecting anything in return?

Wednesday, October 20, 2010



1. Mbuyuwamwambwa

2. Mboo Muyunda

3. Inyambo

4. Yeta I

5. Ngalama

6. Yeta II (Nalute)

7. Ngombala

8. Yubya

9. Mwanawina I

10. Mwananyanda

11. Mulambwa

12. Sipopa Lutangu 1864 – 1876

13. Mwanawina II 1877 – 1878

14. Lubosi Lewanika 1878 – 1884

15. Akufuna Tatila 1884 – 1885

16. Lubosi Lewanika 1885 – 1916

17. Litia Yeta III 1916 – 1946

18. Lubosi Imwiko I 1946 – 1948
(Imutakwandu) - Son to # 16

19. Mwanawina III 1948 – 1968

20. Mbikusita Lewanika 1968 – 1977

21. Ilute Yeta IV 1977 – 2000

22. Lubosi Imwiko II 2000 – To date ( Son to #18 )

Wednesday, September 22, 2010




Kusiyo Mbikusita Lewanika


Western Province (Barotseland) is one of the nine provinces of Zambia. The Barotse Kingdom was established as far back as 1600 when the first King Mboo settled in the Barotse Plain. The Kingdom has had thirty-one Queens and Kings since then . The paper will discuss the traditional socioeconomic systems for monitoring wetlands and wetland natural resources as based on the (a) Barotse system of government, (b) Barotse legal system, (c) land tenure, and (d) the social structure of the Lozi people. The paper will also give a brief historical background on Barotseland.


Historical Background

Western Province is one of the nine provinces of the Republic of Zambia. Before Zambia’s independence on 24th October 1964, it was called Barotseland Protectorate. The first known leader was a woman called Mwambwa who was later succeeded by her daughter Mbuyamwambwa. She was succeeded by her son the first Litunga (or King) Mboo Muyunda. The state expanded under his leadership by sending his brothers and other relations to the surrounding areas to establish Lozi rule.
On the advice of his counterpart King Khama of the Mangwato in Bechuanaland and Francois Coillard of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, King Lewanika I accepted the British rule so that he would be protected against the impending German and Portuguese invasion and periodic Ndebele raids. On 27th June 1890, King Lewanika I and the British South Africa Company signed the Frank Lochner Treaty. The signing of the Lochner Treaty marked the end of the Lozi autonomy as it now become a British protectorate.
On 18th May 1964, Sir Mwanawina III Litunga of Barotseland and Kenneth Kaunda Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia signed the "Barotseland Agreement 1964" which established Barotseland's position within Zambia in place of the earlier agreement between Barotseland and the British Government. The agreement was based on a long history of close social, economic and political interactions. The Barotseland Agreement granted Barotse authorities and people specified limited local self-governance rights and rights to be consulted on specified matters, including over land, natural resources and local government.

Western Province, present-day Barotsland, covers an area of 126,386 square kilometres. This is roughly 17% of the total area of Zambia, which is about 752,000 square kilometres. The Province is situated between longitudes 22º and the 25º 30’ East of Greenwich and 13º 45’ and 17º 45’ south of the Equator. It shares international boundaries with the Republic of Angola on the west and the Republic of Namibia to the south. Within the Republic of Zambia, the province shares boundaries with North Western Province in the north, Central Province to the northeast and Southern Province on the southeast.

Figure 1. Location of Barotseland
The topographic features of the Province are distinct from other parts of Zambia in that Kalahari Sand and the Zambezi flood plain, which is characterized by seasonal flooding, dominate it. This forces people to move to higher ground (upland) on the edge of the Barotse plain. The Barotse Plain on the upper Zambezi is about 160 kilometres long and 60 kilometres at its widest point and nearly 900 metres above the sea level. The province has altitudes ranging between 1,880 metres in the northeast and 814metres in the southeast.

The population for Western Province increased from 638,756 in 1990 to 782,509 in 2000. The average annual growthrate for the province is 2.1 percent, a decline from 2.8 percent in the previous intercensal period 1980 to 1990. This amounts to a 25 percent decline.

The Barotseland gained a special status under the British Colonial system as a British protectorate. Overall power over land was vested in the Litunga (King), through the Barotse Native Courts Ordinance Act (1939). This was later repealed after Zambia gained its independence bringing the province under the statutory law of the land. However customary laws are still firmly established in the province due to its special status, autonomous history and strongly centralized traditional laws and court system (Gils, 1988). The Barotse Royal Establishment is the custodian of the traditional laws and court system.

Barotse system of government is of five tiers or levels. Starting from the central government to the village level. The structure of the Barotse Government is shown in Figure 2.

The first tier of government is referred to as Namuso (literary the Mother Of Governments.) This is the central government of Barotseland. It has the Litunga as the Head of State and the Ngambela as Prime Minister. The Ngambela is the political, administrative and judicial head of the Barotseland. Second to the Ngambela is the Natamoyo. This title means “Master-of-Life” or “Redeemer”. He has the power of sanctuary or refuge in his person and house. The Ngambela works with other Indunas (Ministers) in-charge of specific sectors such as health, forests, canals, wildlife, etc.
The second tier of government is the regional government of the southern part of Barotseland, which is headed by the Litunga-La-Mboela, which means the Litunga of the South. She has the Sambi as the political, administrative and judicial head of the southern region of Barotseland. The government of Lwambi has it’s own Natamoyo and other Indunas

Barotseland is sub-divided into eleven (11) Chiefdoms each headed by a Chief. A Chief has a team of Indunas to assist him / her in governing the area. This is a tier of government. In each Chiefdom has an Induna as political, administrative and judicial head.

County Administrative Areas
In every Chiefdom there are County Administrative Areas referred as of Lilalo. The Silalo (singular) has an Induna who is its political, administrative and judicial head.

A Silalo has a number of villages (Minzi). Munzi (singular) has an Induna who is its political, administrative and judicial head.

Each level of government has a Kuta. The main responsibility of the Kuta is to carried out political, administrative and judicial functions of each tier of government.

(a) The Sikalu is the Kuta at Namuso. It consists of principal members are Manduna (Ministers), the Likombwa (Kings Aids) and Linabi (members of royal family). The Sikalo mainly deals with Legislation. The head of the Sikalo is the Ngambela. Selected Queen(s) (two or more) of the Litunga have the right to access to the Siikalo at certain times and had the right to discuss matters with the members of the Siikalo. They were to act as a check to any Law or Scheme that might detrimental to the interests of women.

(b) The Saa, like the Sikalu consists of members from the Manduna, Likombwa and Linabi. It also deals with Legislation. The head of the Saa is the Inete.

(c) Each Chiefdom has its own Kuta, which handles all political, administrative and judicial at a local level.

Kuta of Lwambi Sikalu Kuta Saa Kuta Kuta of Libonda

Chiefdom Level Kuta

Figure 2. Barotse Government Structure
Advisory Councils
The Katengo is composed of the Malume (Silalo and Village Indunas). It acts as a check to any proposed law that may be detrimental to the interests of the common people. The Katengo is also consulted when a law is proposed and gives its report to the head of the Saa who reports directly to the Ngambela.
A second advisory council, Anatambumu, is comprised entirely of women chosen by the Litunga and Sikalo from members of the royal family and other Barotse families. These have access to the Litunga at all times and can denounce to him anything that is against the interests of the people, and they can obtain views from the other women.

The main responsibilities of the Barotse Government can be summed up as follows:
• To conserve natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations.
• To provide every subject with suitable land for building a home and farming.
• To allow every subject to utilise of the specific natural resources according to laws, rules and regulations pertaining to utilisation of the specific natural resource.
• To distribute previously unallocated land to subjects who are short of land and to newcomers.
• To repossess all land which has been abandoned or for which family heirs cannot be traced.
• To make laws, rules and regulations.
• To prosecute people found to be contravening laws, rules and regulations.
• To adjudicate land disputes and other related cases.

Monitoring of Wetlands and Wetlands Natural Resources
The Litunga in consultation with the Ngambela appoints an Induna to be in-charge of specific natural resources. The Induna would perform the functions. Broadly, these are to:
• advise the Litunga, Chiefs and the citizenry on all issues concerning to specific natural resource.

• perform all the administrative work pertaining to the specific natural resource.

• plan, control and monitor the utilization of the specific natural resource.

• plan, manage and control the cropping of natural resources in terms of place, duration, timing and number of participants.


An elaborate and enforceable Legal System buttressed the traditional social-economic system for natural resource. It was acknowledged by both legal experts and social scientists who have written extensively on it.

Basic Terminology
The Barotse Legal System is based on milao (laws), liswanelo (rights), litukelo (rights of particular position or social status), mikwa (methods or ways of doing things), and mulatu (an offence or wrongdoing). The five cornerstones of the Barotse Legal System have been existence since the beginning of the kingdom. However, most laws were institutionalised during the reign of King Mulambwa in the 18th century. This included laws pertaining to acquisition, use and disposal of natural resources.

• Milao: According to the Barotse Legal System, Milao are legislative rules that need to be followed. These rules touched all aspects of life in Barotseland including the use of natural resources.

• Liswanelo: A body of rights that one enjoys according to gender, age and other situations. This includes access to and utilisation of natural resources. They also include ones responsibilities.

• Litukelo: A body rights that one enjoys according to their position or social status. This includes access to and utilisation of natural resources. They also includes ones responsibilities.

• Mikwa: Accepted methods or ways of doing things. This includes acquisition, use and disposal of natural resources.

• Mulatu: To be found guilty of going against milao, liswanelo, litukelo, and mikwa.

Administration of the Judiciary
The administration of the judiciary in Barotseland is done through Kutas. Kuta is where Indunas and the public meet to look at all matters pertaining to Barotseland be it of administrative or judiciary nature. It is a parliament as well as a court of law. The main business of the Kuta consists mainly in the hearing and settlement of cases and promulgation of Laws and orders for Public Works. There is a Kuta at every level of government. Persons not satisfied with judgment at lower Kutas have the right to appeal to the Siikalo Kuta at Namuso.
• Sikalu Kuta (Supreme Court). At Namuso, the Ngambela, or one next to him in rank during his absence, acts as the Judge and submits judgment to the Litunga for approval. The rest of Indunas acts as assessors. An important member of the Sikalu is the Natamoyo. Natamoyo means “Mother-of-Life” or “Redeemer”. He has the power of sanctuary or refuge in his person and house. He must be a member of the Royal Family, but from a line of female descendants. He sits next to the Ngambela in the Kuta. He can release any offender who is sentenced to any punishment, fine or death if he sees that the sentence is rather heavy for the offence.

• Chiefdom Level Kuta. Every Chiefdom has a Kuta with less powers that the Kuta at Namuso. This Kuta at have powers to settle cases except ones the Kuta consider difficult that are referred to Sikalu. In the Kuta there must be someone to act as Natamoyo.

• Silalo Kuta. Every Silalo has a Kuta with less power than the Chiefdom Kuta. The Kuta at Silalo have powers to settle cases except ones the Silalo Kuta consider difficult which are referred Chiefdom.


Land in Zambia is of two categories: customary and state land. There are two land tenure systems; freehold which has unlimited duration and leasehold which is limited by number of years. The land tenure for customary land is freehold while for state land is leasehold which for 99 years (Hansungule, n.d).
Under leasehold, land is owned by the state while individuals merely rent or hold it as tenants. Secondly, the leaseholder is required by law to pay ground rent to the state for renting the soil or land. The leaseholder cannot sell, transfer or assign any land, before obtaining consent of the President. This is because all the land in Zambia in entrusted to the President on behalf of all Zambia (ibid, n.d).
In the case of freehold (customary land), individuals own the land and their heirs can inherit it. However they cannot sell, transfer or assign any land without the consent of the Kuta. This because all customary land is held in-trust by the Litunga.

Customary Land Management Systems
All the land and natural resources in Barotseland are entrusted to the Litunga. Land in Barotseland is acquired and given through the Litunga. It is for this reason that the Litunga is referred to as the owner of land and cattle (Minya-Mupu-Na-Ngombe ) and the King of the earth (Mbumu-Wa-litunga ). This does not mean that he is entitled to do as he pleases with every piece of land within the boundaries of Bulozi. He is the custodian of the customary land. His rights are clearly defined. Traditionally, Lozi people say that the King is the owner of Bulozi and its trees and his servants and the cattle, the Prime Minister is owner of the Lozi people (Mbumu to minyo Uluyi ni itondo na bika ni ngombe, Ngambela to minyo Aluyi). This saying emphasises the importance of the Litunga as the giver of material wealth and the importance of the Ngambela as the leader of the nation. Once the Litunga gives, the recipient has definite protected rights in what he has received.

Land Ownership Types
There are five basic land ownership types in Barotseland.
• Mubu-Wa-Ngweshi: This land belongs to the Litunga, and is inherited by each Litunga who ascends to the Throne. It is scattered all over Barotseland. Entrusted to the Litunga and /or Litunga’s representative (District Chiefs) for the people of Barotseland, it is from this land Litunga and Chiefs can give land to people who ask for land for it for homesites,, agriculture, or other kinds of development. The land and natural resources found on this land are managed on behalf of the Litunga by Indunas at various levels.

• Mubu-Wa-Luu: District Chiefs and certain Indunas and members of the Royal Family have access to land, which is attached to their positions within the Barotse Royal Establishment. The family members cannot inherit this land, when the current holder of the position dies, resigns or dismissed, the ownership is transferred to successor. The present owner is responsible for the management of this type of land and its natural resources.

• Mubu-Wa-Bana-Ba-Malenaz: Members of the Royal Family hold this land in trust. This is hereditary - passing from generation to generation in the same family membership. However, should be a situation such that there is no one to inherit the lands to the trusteeship reverts to the Litunga. Members of the Royal Family and their Indunas are responsible for the management of this and its natural resources.

• Mubu Wa Lusika: This land belongs to ordinary citizenry of Barotseland. This is hereditary - passing from generation to generation in the same family membership. This type of title is also referred to as Katongo-Ka-Shangwe. Family concerned responsible for the management of this and its natural resources

• Mulalambuwa: This is land that is far from any human settlement. No village or person has claim over it. Any person can acquire this land by following prescribed procedures through the Silalo Induna. The land and natural resources found on this is managed on behalf of the Litunga by Indunas at various levels.

Adjudication of Land Disputes
The main business of the Kuta consists mainly in the hearing and settlement of cases. Many of these cases concern land disputes. Identifying and agreeing on boundaries of the disputed land is a major part of the proceedings of the Kuta. Physical features such as lakes and foot paths mark boundaries.


The Lozi are usually referred to as the plains people. The plains people’s way of living has been greatly influenced by the flooding regime of the Zambezi River. The local people together with their livestock annually move from the wetlands of the Zambezi flood plain to higher upland. This movement is known as Kuomboka (to come out of water). The migration from the plain to high land releases pressure on consumption of natural resources. Periodically public announcements pertaining to cropping of natural resources in a specified area are made. There are three types of cropping: sitindi (fish) sitaka (birds) and lisulo (wild animal). The cropping of natural resources is a controlled activity in terms of place, duration, timing and number of participants.
• Sitindi: Organised public fishing using special spear in specified lagoons and lakes on a selected day.
• Sitaka: Periodically birds in a specified location will be cropped. Only adult birds were killed. It was not allowed to kill nursing birds or its chicks.
• Lisulo: Once in a long whilea hunting expedition will take place in a specified area. During the lisulo only specified animals would be killed. Nursing animals and their young ones were not killed.

From a traditional perspective natural resources in Barotseland were used for home consumption and for the common good of the community. Benefits accrued from natural resource were shared in such a way that the local community had a portion and people in authorities at all levels had their portions too. People in authority distributed part of their portions to the vulnerable that is namukuka (single women), widows and the elderly and contributed to homes, which had visitors. Hence the Siluyana saying, “Kwa lya mbumu kwa mu bika” which means people have a share from the King’s food plate. Some portions were stored for rainy days, needy areas and ceremonies.


The best method of natural resources monitoring is community-based whose main thrust is to ensure that benefits of conservation accrue to the people who are directly involved in the management of natural resources. The traditional systems of natural resources monitoring is such method. The erosion of power of traditional authority in the country and Barotseland in particular is the greatest challenge to traditional systems of natural resources monitoring.
Central government natural resource management systems are seen by local communities as the preserve of a team of civil servants from government ministries. Consequently, local communities became disoriented and abandoned their traditional responsibility which included ensuring that strict observation of the timing of burning of fields, protection of trees and wildlife without permission of traditional authorities, and fair distribution of the benefits of the community’s natural resources.


Barotse Native Government (1956) Orders and Rules

Central Statistical Office, Lusaka, Zambia (2001) Preliminary Report for the 2000 Census of Population and Housing

Gils, H. van et al (1988) Environmental Profiles Western Province, Zambia

IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa (1995) Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Natural Resources Management in Western Province, Zambia.

Kusiyo Mbikusita Lewanika (2001) The Role of Traditional Rulers in the Management of Natural Resources in Barotseland a paper presented at the Community Workshop On Formation of Community By-Laws.

Manyando Mukela, The Ngambela (Prime Minister), Barotse Royal Establishment (2001) Practices of the Barotse Royal Establishment in the Management of Natural Resources a paper presented at the Community Workshop On Formation of Community By-Laws.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010



Post news Paper,
Rhodes Park,
P/ Bag E352, Lusaka

Dear Sir/Madam

Ref: Editorial Comment and Other Innuendoes Regarding the Barotse Royal Establishment

The Opinions expressed by the Post Newspaper this week regarding the position taken by the Ngambela, on behalf of the people of Barotseland, on the matter of Radio Liseli playing songs in languages other than those indigenous to Barotseland, make sad reading.

Certainly, in making these comment and innuendoes, the Post did not consider the following matters, all of which are already in the public domain:
1. That Barotseland was a sovereign and autonomous nation for centuries before the coming to Africa of Missionaries and later Colonialists;
2. That when the Missionaries and Colonialists arrived in Barotseland, the nation’s sovereignty was acknowledged, recognized and respected, leading to a number of Treaties – including the following:
• The Lochner Concession of June 1890
• The Lawley Concession (Concession A) of June 25, 1898
• The Barotseland – North Western Rhodesia Order-in-Council of 1899
• Concession B of 1900
• Concession Agreement of August 11, 1909
• The Northern Rhodesia Order-in-Council of 1911, which amalgamated North Eastern Rhodesia and Barotseland North-Western Rhodesia into Northern Rhodesia
• The Northern Rhodesia Order in Council of 1924
• The Barotse Fund Ordinance of 1925, in terms of which a special fund was established to finance the running of the Barotseland Government
• The Barotse Native Authority Ordinance and the Barotse Native Courts Ordinance, both of 1936
• A Special Order in Council of 1953
• Sections 57 and 80 of the Northern Rhodesia Order in Council of 1962; and sections 59 and 112 of the Self-Governing Constitution of 1963, which both affirmed and recognized Barotseland as a separate State within Northern Rhodesia; and
• The Zambia Independence Act and the Zambia Independence Order of 1964, which gave recognition to the Barotseland Agreement 1964.

Of particular importance is the point that The Litunga protected himself in all these treaties and agreements by way of the clause that “nothing written in these agreements shall otherwise affect my Constitutional power or authority as Chief of the said Barotse nation.”
1. That the last treaty, i.e. the Barotseland Agreement 1964, was not respected by KK’s government, thereby leaving a legacy, to-date, for subsequent Zambian governments also not to respect it. As such, as everyone knows, the Barotseland issue has been a sensitive matter which has been simmering since the first Republican President (KK) betrayed the people of Barotseland by, in his way of thinking, introducing both new legislation and undertaking constitutional amendments, to revoke the Barotseland Agreement 1964 - thereby preventing the people of Barotseland from continuing with their right to govern themselves, within a unitary Zambia. The legality of what he did cannot stand in an impartial court of law. A Treaty or International Agreement, such as the Barotseland Agreement 1964, is not a matter for one of the signatories to abrogate because the same power that KK had to sign on behalf of the Northern Rhodesia Government was the same power that The Litunga had to sign for his nation - Barotseland. In essence, therefore, if it was legal for KK to abrogate the Agreement, it was also equally legal for The Litunga to abrogate it as well, with the attendant consequence that The Litunga-in-Council would have continued with their business of governing Barotseland as it had done for centuries before. That no Litunga has taken this step up to now is not only a miracle but also a credit to the discipline of the Lozi nation. There is really nothing that I can find to prevent The Litunga from proclaiming the internal self-determination and autonomy of Barotseland, as provided for in the Barotseland Agreement 1964, within a unitary Republic of Zambia.

One would like to emphasize that The Litunga-in-Council are not aware of any other Treaty, other than the Barotseland Agreement 1964, on which they have tendered their signatures, agreeing to how Barotseland is to be administered and governed. So, basically, it would be legally correct and true to say that Barotseland has been administered and governed illegally by the Zambian Government since 1964 (also see Post Bag, July 26, 1998) because there is no Treaty or legally-binding instrument, negotiated with, and dully signed by the legitimate representatives of the people of Barotseland, giving the Zambian government power to carry out day-to-day administrative and/or governance duties over Barotseland. So, basically, the Radio Liseli saga is just a tip of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 iceberg. It is also NOT a new case because starting from the time the Radio station began to broadcast on a trial basis they received many complaints about the linguistic imperialism that they were promoting. I am a Catholic, but I want to pray and glorify God in my language. I am quite convinced that God understands Silozi.

For those that may not know, Silozi is the national language of Barotseland. Malozi are not of one tribe. Malozi are the people of Barotseland – constituted by 37 tribes ( amongst whom are Ma Mbowe, Ma Kwandi, Ma Kwangwa, Ma Subiya, Ma Kwamakoma, Ma Kwamwenyi, Manyengo, Mambukushu, Mayeyi, Mankoya, Maluvale, Mambunda, Machokwe, Maluchazi, Malunda, etc.). Silozi, as a language, together with other national symbols like the Barotseland national anthem, the Barotseland national flag, and others symbolized the sovereignty and autonomy of Barotseland.

1. The Post should also have been aware (because they have, themselves previously reported on these matters) that in order to keep Malozi quiet on the issue of their human, economic and political rights, as enshrined in the Barotseland Agreement 1964, successive Zambian governments have always used very heavy-hand tactics against anyone suspected to be sympathetic to, or having a soft heart for, the Barotseland Agreement 1964. Such heavy-hand tactics have included political detentions and victimization of Malozi (see Times of Zambia, January10, 1997; The Post: August 23, 1998; November 20, 1998; February 25, 1999; February 26, 1999; October 6, 1999; October 15, 1999; Sunday Times: October 24, 1999; Zambia Human Rights Reports of 1998 &1999; National Mirror, August 14-20, 1999; The Monitor: April 23-29, 1999; May 12-18, 2001; Sunday Mail, February 7, 1999 etc.). So basically, Malozi are now in a situation whereby they’re scared to say or do anything around the issue of their human, economic and political rights as enshrined in the Barotseland Agreement 1964. Is there an acceptable way in which they can call for the restoration of their right to internal self-determination, as provided for in the Barotseland Agreement 1964, without incurring the wrath of The Post Newspaper or the authorities? The negation of these rights has been a human catastrophe and a tragedy. We’re happy and proud to be called Zambians, but only if and when the legal instrument (the Barotseland Agreement 1964) which made this possible is also acknowledged, recognized and respected by our fellow Zambians. We, therefore, yearn for, and request not to be provoked because in the end when we react, those responsible for the provocation remain in their comfortable homes sipping tea while we get the shorter end of the stick and suffer serious consequences of intimidation, harassment and detentions (as the above references will bear me out). It is far better to leave us alone for the time-being while we ponder how to get out of this quagmire, than to keep on poking and poking. Alternatively, perhaps The Post is on our side, and is just creating that much needed spark to have us spring to action, together with them, such that we may begin to see the light at the end of this very long 43 year old tunnel. If this were to be so, then we should probably arrange to sit together around a square table and find each other on this matter.

Basically, since 1964, the fundamental issue in the minds of the honourable members of The Litunga-in-Council, has always been, and still is, who is in charge of the day-to-day administration and governance of Barotseland. This means that, unless, and until, the Barotseland Agreement 1964 issue is addressed to the satisfaction of all, some people, such as The Post, will continue to quibble with the symptoms of the bigger issue. As Malozi, we do not express hatred towards other Zambians by calling for the restoration of our human, political and economic rights; we’re just stating our case – by the way, unapologetically. It is not our fault that we’re Malozi - we were born so; it is not our fault that we have the Barotseland Agreement 1964, to safe-guard our human, economic and political rights. This was due to the valour, wisdom and foresight of our fore-bearers. If other Zambians have their own Agreements and Treaties which ought to be recognized and respected, they are also equally free to state their own case – and we shall respect them. But they do not have the right to stop us from stating our own case. Championing the Barotseland Agreement 1964 is not tantamount to instigating secession or to court treason, as many misguided people often resort to thinking. It is basically to acknowledge the human, political and economic rights negotiated by Malozi, at the point of joining other Zambians, before coming together as one country.

The irony of this whole fiasco is that whereas the colonial government acknowledged, recognized and respected the sovereignty and political autonomy of Barotseland, it is fellow Black people, i.e. the Zambian government, that has abrogated the rights and privileges of Malozi to internal self-determination. It appears it has become a curse of Barotseland to be colonized by fellow Black people, when one considers that from the 1830’s to the early 1860’s, Barotseland suffered the same fate at the hands of Masotho. So, basically, Barotseland never lost her sovereignty to the White people (because Barotseland always enjoyed her sovereignty even during colonial times), but has only done so to fellow Black people.

The other issue is that there is no such thing as a “Western Province Agreement or Treaty”. The use of the term “Western Province” to refer to Barotseland was an undemocratic imposition of the KK regime, in line with his other machinations which characterized his communist, brainwashing syndrome - to both distort the borders of Barotseland and to give effect to his treacherous abrogation of the Barotseland Agreement 1964, after he had signed it. So, the use of Western Province in reference to our land has remained a sore insult, which we have had to endure for so long.

Typically, before one reacts to a situation, such as this one, one needs to get to the bottom of the psyche of the person who has made such Opinions. This is not an easy task in a sensitive matter such as this one because most well-meaning Zambians are aware of the above unfortunate history. For over forty years, Barotseland has not been treated fairly by Zambia - culminating in presently being paraded as the poorest part of the Republic of Zambia, despite an abundance of human and natural resources. To run a national newspaper is to have a very powerful forum for communicating ideas. The Post, therefore, has a very powerful instrument of communication to influence the direction of thought in the country. When this is abused, serious consequences may result. Barotseland does not have such a powerful forum to counter their aggression and the pursuance of whatever agenda they want to champion. So, what reasonable forum can we expect to use when they come all out to attack the very foundation of our pride, glory, honour, integrity and our rallying point – the Barotse Royal Establishment and the Litunga-in-Council? Perhaps one needs to fight fire with fire, so we’re asking the same Post Newspaper to allow us space to express our feelings on what they have said. This is a self-defeatist approach, but what else can we do? We’re desperate and disempowered. SinceThe Post parades itself as a democratic, independent newspaper, we hope it can easily allow views opposed to its own to find space in its pages.

Our hope lies with the Mwanawasa Government because now, at very long last and with much tribulation, we have a government that prides itself in respecting the rule of law. It is our hope, therefore, that this government can start a genuine and meaningful process of reviewing the legality of this all-important matter of KK’s abrogation of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 – entailing genuine negotiations with the Barotse Royal Establishment and the people of Barotseland on a civilized way forward, instead of continuing to hold on to the cruel illegality and legacy left by KK’s large appetite for absolute power which left Malozi without their fundamental right to internal autonomy in the day-to-day governance of their affairs – as provided for in the Barotseland Agreement 1964, which KK himself signed willingly and with his eyes wide open. This has been a terrible atrocity against Malozi, and we hope our present Government of Laws (the Mwanawasa government) will not condone this human atrocity for much longer.

Prof. Sitwala Namwinji Imenda
Mobile: +27 82 888 3606

January 19, 2007.

Thursday, August 12, 2010



By Namakando Nalikando Sinyama

Allow me to comment on the recent developments at former celtel. I must confess that i may not exactly be abreast with the Zambian corporate calendar but the re-branding of Celtel to Zain cannot go without observation. What was noticed was a very sadden change over to this new brand. One would have hoped that these corporate entities owe their profits to its clientele and thus the least they can be is courteous towards them. What should be understood is the difference between these two messages that we could have been bombarded with in all the daily tabloids. “CELTEL shall become ZAIN.” As opposed to suddenly “CELTEL becomes ZAIN”. One of them is clearly less courteous even patronizingly arrogant in a corporate kind of way, even rude and the other more polite and informative. Gradualism is a soother even a healer! I hope their Research and Development team carried out an exhaustive analysis on the potential impact of the change or re-branding. I always envied their marketing prowess, which to me is where their strength really lay. But what should never be underestimated was the value of their previous corporate brand. What they have done should go down in the annals of marketing as a classic example of how not realizing the value of a corporate brand can affect business. What must be said even from any lay person’s view point is that there is bound to be negative consequences to this re-branding at CELTEL. I may not have direct access to their books of accounts but they may either be making less money or they could be making a whole lot more.
Did they, for instance, consider that we live in a society that is predisposed towards negativism which manifests itself as general hostility to unfamiliar concepts and is less well informed? This especially when new things are rudely imposed on it. Already there is talk going round that their new colours and black symbols have satanic connotations, which is of course preposterous. But then ,when your market base is in a country that is predominantly awash with Christian fundamentalists it would not be a bad idea at all, albeit unnecessary, to explain some unfamiliar abstract business logos to your clients so as to allay the suspicions of people with runaway imaginations. But have you seen the paintwork on their new fleet of cars or on those cars whose owners have probably just volunteered to have painted with Zain shades? With good reason i might add. I must commend them though for finally saving some of us from the previous brand with an almost blinding visual impact of the crimson/red aesthetic litter which had a shade of red too many!
In a business environment where serious cut throat competition exists in the cellular phone service provision market, other firms would seek to strategically capitalise on CELTEL’s re-branding and the manner in which it was done and thus dislodge them from their otherwise previously strong market niche during this period of re-organisation. But ZAIN needs not worry, as Zambia is not such an environment because the other players on the market are in comparison quite cavalier in their approach to business. This does in a big way rob customers of the opportunity to enjoy better products and services which results from continuously improved products and services in a very healthily competitive atmosphere. But alas, others are now just learning how to configure their systems to enable subscribers share Talk time! It is exactly this kind of situation that encourages the coming of dominant corporate entities that think they can treat their clients in whichever way they please, as they would have no choice or real attractive alternative due to sloppy competition. But they are wrong; this will not go on for long! What one will clearly observe is that MTN has managed to come up with a robust team which has accomplished some marketing milestones and this has helped them claim a sizeable share of the mobile service provision customer base.
The lesson that can be learnt is that once a firm undergoes a Take Over, Merger or acquisition or whatever it was that happened at CELTEL, they may have very little say on what should or should not change in as far the corporate image is concerned. The majority shareholder more often than not has more influence on the direction the new firm takes. What is undebatable is that things at this firm seem topsy-turvy. The frequency of ownership change at ZAIN may not be healthy and will make its subscribers become disillusioned. Who knows who the new owners are after Baharti Telcom? You see, my point exactly!

However, as far as the competition goes CELTEL, sorry ZAIN need not worry itself none as the Zambian public is one of the most accommodating lot with a remarkable memory span! Here are a people that are even almost forgetting they ever had a beloved president in a display of a rare form of synchronised collective amnesia. A people who were prepared to remain forever silent and be in the dark about his true condition in a neatly orchestrated media blackout akin to the cold war era when there were Ministries of Misinformation. A people who are prepared to casually sit idly by and watch the prices of fuel dangerously going up gradually. A litre of petrol costs K 8500 /litre whose dollar equivalent is $1.65! While in the US and western Europe we see mass protests from truckers and motorists for the powers that be to free their countries strategic reserves of the commodity, those of them that had the foresight to stock up in the event of skyrocketing prices of petroleum, which product is now being used as the 21stcentury weapon of choice. Only their gasoline is charged per gallon and for them a gallon is equivalent to 3.7 litres! They(Zambians) are mute when their country’s only petroleum refinery facility continues to be mismanaged with shocking inventory control practices. May radical suggestion is this that That White Elephant of a structure called INDENI should be shut down. Its costing your country way too much in transport the crude via pipeline. This is a very risky method and we all know that it continues to break down there is very little security to safeguard it. What jobs has INDENI created? What tangible benefits in by products have accrued from refining the crude at high cost, kerosene? Which is used to do what exactly? Has having the refinery made the petrol cheaper? Please close the dumb thing erect it closer to the source, say Nakonde, give jobs to my more serious and focussed brothers the Somali transporters to distribute the product to OMCs in Zambia. This done will save the country the hassles and embarrassment of constant shut downs at INDENI.

Most serious minds see what is wrong in the general approach to issues by Zambians but the tranquilising drug of gradualism numbs them for they do nothing and carry on as though things were normal. But Zambians are just that they remain forever quite, these are the people i would like to be around. Docile natured you call them? No, just a peaceable lot they are or so they would like to believe.

This does remind one of the tale of the amphibious frog which when put in a pot of hot water immediately jumps out .However, when the same frog is plunged into cold water that is gradually heated up to a perfect boil, the frog would not twitch a muscle to move until it was very dead in the hot water. But Zambians are just that they remain forever quite, these are the people i would like to be around. Docile natured you call them? No, just a peaceable lot they are or so they would like to believe.

To ZAIN i say take heart, before long they(Zambians) will forget there was ever any ‘RED Network’ and will take to the ‘Black Network’ with magnetic ferocity. I derive credence for my optimism from what i reckon is one the most aggressive and creative marketing teams at CELTEL ever seen on the Zambian business scene. That is if they were all taken on to be part of ZAIN.

The second lesson a business might want to learn is , “ Do not unnecessarily change a winning brand, for there is a danger in NOT knowing the value or strength of your current business brand.” This, especially, if the changeover is not exactly going to be coupled with shockingly better or more improved service level delivery. The outcome of this is bound to cause a crossing over of subscribers en masse.

If there were serious competitors around, the probable result of this re-branding may be ZAIN Pain!

Kozo ,

Namakando Nalikando Sinyama
Barotse Patriot
Barotseland, Central Africa
“I tell you a Truth, Liberty is the best of all things, my son, NEVER live under a Slavish Bond.” – Sir William Wallace’s Uncle

Wednesday, August 4, 2010



(Kindly note that this is a PDF document,the font is very small as i could not edit it. To view it in a larger font just click on each page and the larger format will appear.
N.B Start from the bottom where The BRE Letter head appears working your way up)

Sunday, June 27, 2010


By Namakando Nalikando Sinyama
Having been off mail for a wee while i reckoned i ought to sift through all the old mail in me inbox in case some subject matter catches my fancy. I stumbled across the mail below which i must say i found utterly shocking. The gentleman’s unenviable chimera-like shape shifting from a well established collective espirit de corps focussed on internal mass industrial liberation to a lonely corner spot of ZRAWU hegemony. This is very dangerous for any individual who genuinely aspires to be a leader of anything let alone a group of very intelligent human beings. I say this with full cognizance of the fact that i have no right whatsoever to constitute myself judge of his conduct. Only this type of sudden personality and principle change is to say the least worryingly sickening. It actually makes one want to be careful who you say what to lest they shape shift on you! But then in retrospect, I thought it may have been bizarrely plausible albeit remotely that by some freakish fluke of nature my brother and tribal cousin Franklin Chiingo may have grown a ‘brain’ over night! His radical Machiavellian (Niccolo Machiavelli 1469-1527, Italian Statesman from his book The Prince) repositioning in his personal quest to command and taste some semblance of power and authoritarian officialdom is deeply immoral. We may be naively thinking this battle will be easily won. The reality on the ground is however that this situation is bound to play out for a longer time than we care to admit. When push comes to shove however, something will definitely have to give. The real forces at play in this matter and which have major stakes are these;

1. Government, on one hand is quietly aware of what is happening and their interests are always multi-faceted in nature. For one thing, they would want uninterrupted ZRA operations as the ideal situation. One needs not say too much here for obvious reasons!

2. The ZRA management who may currently feel an internal union would and has been quite malleable and thus manageable, may be rather reluctant to change this internal power equilibrium. I would not be very off if i assert that the workforce is currently very weakened and generally disillusioned by the status quo as it persists. Technically, after having resigned from ZRAWU en masse as we did, in actuality we are still merely expressing a wish, even though holding ZUFIAW membership cards proving our having joined this new union (ZUFIAW). The fact that to date they are yet to sign a recognition agreement with ZRA Management means that in as far as the collective bargaining process is concerned we have no legal representation. Whether you believe it or not, in reality, this has left us very unionless! We have allowed this industrial Mexican standoff of sorts to play out for far too long and it is having a very damaging effect on the workforce. This is not a good position to be in at all. Before long, employee dissatisfaction will set in and eventually it would lead to employee de-motivation consequently low productivity will be the result.

3. The ZUFIAW rank and file office holders, whether or not they have done and are doing enough to apply the necessary skills to ensure that they sign the recognition agreement with ZRA management is something open to conjecture. Do they for instance seem as though they have left the ball and effectively the battle in our hands alone now? Granted, that it is a collective fight but what is it that we need to do or we have not done already so that we quickly do it again or do more of it? One thing is for sure, there is NO collective WILL lacking among US employees within ZRA to leave ZRAWU and join a union of their choice.

The ZRA employees being the ones feeling the results of this delay have to bear the brunt of all ZRAWU machinations coupled with their downright administrative mediocrity of union matters.
You will notice i have meticulously left out ZRAWU as a force because in my mind they are not a factor anymore, we may even be expending our energy in the wrong direction when we target them and constantly reply to their effort of frustrating us. They are currently throwing a number of whammies and boomerangs in our direction here and there but what we need to realize is that by resigning the way we have done has effectively negated them from the equation. They are like a drowning man who out of sheer desperation is bound to even clutch onto a floating piece of straw to save their sorry self!

If we critically look at all the key players above, we will realize and i hope they do too that they stand to gain from a quick and speedy resolution of the situation we are faced with. Most importantly we must realize, we can and must use them(KEY PLAYERS) to our advantage so as to achieve our goal.

This, ladies and gentlemen, is industrial guerrilla ‘war-fare’ pure and simple i cannot think of it any other way and do not be mistaken the stakes are quite high so are the challenges we must overcome. The 3rd Law of military logistics says, “When cornered by enemy forces, use anything and everything at your disposal.”

What I will tell you people with a great degree of certitude is that our productive effectiveness has been and will be sapped even further if this Unionless status quo of ours in this corporate entity persists unresolved any longer than it has. This will not be good for any serious stakeholder. We are very professional workers who are willing to again apply ourselves even more, without needless undue distractions from our core purpose of employment this only once the matter of a suitable external ZUFIAW union representation is amicably secured and finalized.

Lukundo wrote (I would like you to send a photo of yourself, before we meet in person.
I want to put a face to the author.)

My Response: Would you blame me if I got uncomfortable of the prospect of being in your presence? Sorry about the hold up in replying. I do not intend to seem overly melodramatic or anything but I actually sought clearance before I could send these particular pictures. As it was put to me by The Establishment it had something to do with decorum. I will try hard to forestall any more questions from your curious self. (How is the following for a preemptive strike?) Albeit unsolicited for piece of trivia, if at all you have also wondered about what the last statement on my e-mail means, that is, “ Mwana Tau Ki Tau” It happens to be a rendering of the official signature of a dignified son of the Nation of Barotseland His Royal Highness Akashambatwa Mbikusita Lewanika. Literally translated means, “A Lion-cub is actually a Lion”. For a detailed explanation of the derivation of the expression, it is nothing that cannot be exhausted over a few bottles of a known ‘curse’ of most Barotses (Brownies)!! Although I must confess, in a kinky kind of way, I find it quite unsettling to have to paste my image for public consumption in this manner at the request of a bloke. By the way, Kangwa was right our paths have indeed crossed and for more than once. After much considerable thought and rather reluctantly, kindly find attached hereto my humble self as you requested Lukundo!

Breathe easy mein freund!

Namakando Nalikando Sinyama
- “ Mwana Tau Ki Tau”
Barotse Patriot
Central Africa

“I tell you a truth, liberty is the best of all things, my son, never live under a slavish bond.”Sir William Wallace’s Uncle

Monday, June 14, 2010


By Namakando Nalikando Sinyama

On a group of beautiful deserted islands in the middle of nowhere, the following people are suddenly stranded by, as you might expect, a shipwreck: 2 Italian men and 1 Italian woman2 French men and 1 French woman2 German men and 1 German woman2 Greek men and 1 Greek woman2 English men and 1 English woman2 Bulgarian men and 1 Bulgarian woman2 Japanese men and 1 Japanese woman2 Chinese men and 1 Chinese woman2 American men and 1 American woman2 Irish men and 1 Irish woman One month later on these same absolutely stunning deserted islands in the middle of nowhere, the following things have occurred:


/*One Italian man killed the other Italian man for the Italian woman.

(For me this shows the Italian’s over reliance on violence as a way of solving problems. This character trait is forever immortalized in Hollywood as Mafia pictures when the code of La Cosa Nostra is lived to the letter in protecting La Familia.)

/*The two French men and the French woman are living happily together in a ménage-a-trois. (Typical of French society, they will always be revered for their socio-liberalism and their near obsession with sensual gratification, to paraphrase, if there are 3 consenting adults why not indeed!)

/*The two German men have a strict weekly schedule of alternating visits with the German woman. (The German’s desire and insistence on Discipline, Order and Perfection in all they do comes out here. These are the Furher’s boys living the true meaning of their creed. That is why we will forever chant, “Dem Furher Einte Gergen Arbeitten.” If you need a typical example of Hitler’s inspirational legacy of Order and the pursuit of Perfection look at The VW,BMW,Mercedes Benz, Audi and Football Defense formation and then we can talk! )

/*The two Greek men are sleeping with each other and the Greek woman is cleaning and cooking for them.(The Grecians have historically had no trouble expressing what that Great Irish Play write and Dramatist Oscar O’flahertie Wills Wilde once called, “ The Love that Dare not speak its Name.” He further followed this up with, “The greatest way to get rid of a temptation, is to yield to it.” WOW! What genius I say!)

/*The two Bulgarian men took one long look at the endless ocean, and another long look at the Bulgarian woman, and started swimming.(If its not the famed Romany’s pre-occupation with wonder-lust. There is no where the Gypsy will not go, provided there is a route, they will take to it in search of sustenance. Yes, not even the allure of multiple sessions of erotica comes close!)

/*The two Japanese men have texted Tokyo and are awaiting instructions.(The Nipponese have become too afflicted with techno-philia that their ability to make even the most basic of decisions has been reduced somewhat.)

/*The two Chinese men have set up a pharmacy, a liquor store, a restaurant and a laundry, and have got the woman pregnant in order to supply employees for their stores. (The entrepreneurial instinct of the Sino shines through here. In their endeavor or quest to dominate global commerce, they will stop at nothing. They are prepared to use their run away libido to procreate and raise an army of workers. Ask the West and you will see how they have taken notice. They want to attack their Human Rights record, Ecological Footprint but they care less. The Red Army’s match is as inexorable as the very passage of Time I say!)

/*The two American men are contemplating the virtues of suicide because the American woman keeps endlessly complaining about her body; the true nature of feminism; how she can do everything they can do; the necessity of fulfilment; the equal division of household chores; how sand and palm trees make her look fat; how her last boyfriend respected her opinion and treated her nicer than they do; but how her relationship with her mother is improving and how at least the taxes are low and it isn't raining.(It’s the Yankees with their all too familiar holier-than-thou attitude and drunkenness with Demon-cracy which they impose on societies as if they were told it’s the most ideal governance model. What civil rights does the Yankee speak of? They have even waged War to export demon-cracy to weak countries and plunder those nation’s natural resources and impose governments there. Their materialistic society will be their undoing in the end. Human Rights my foot, Katrina Re-visited, let ‘em Go to the Reservations and assess the welfare of Native Americans, then they can come and chew gum in my face!)

/*The two English men are waiting for someone to introduce them to the English woman.(The Anglo-saxon’s genteel nature reverberates in this piece. They do not give it a hoot,no sensual desire can overpower their good nature; they can wait until hell freezes over before they can disrespect the woman folk. This they will do this even if they drowned in their own civility. The Angles are so conservative,the Fox Hunt on horse back continues even as I write, the truffles are still being picked in the country-side, nhuuu yammy!)

/*The two Irish men have divided the island into North and South and set up a distillery. They do not remember if sex is in the picture because it gets sort of foggy after the first few litres of coconut whisky. But they're satisfied because at least the English aren't getting laid either.(The Land of Eire is still in a constant battle over territory, and their bullish nature will be seen in their temperament, talk about Austere Unionists, Orange Order matches in Londonderry, Belfast, Sein Feihn will live on! We will forever be grateful to the gods for the culture of what I would in the rich Scottish/Irish Gaelic tongue uisage beatha. Like Barotses they relish the many outings to the local pub and have no qualms what so ever about empting a few kegs of some good old social lubricant as they engage in intellectual intercourse. My wits are at their sharpest after I imbibe a few swigs of you know what while lending an ear to some classic yoddling of The Dubliners’ renditions of Irish and Scottish drinking songs, Ooooooooh!!!!! How I miss them!)
Namakando Nalikando Sinyama
Barotse Patriot
Central Africa
“I tell you a truth, liberty is the best of all things, my son, never live under a slavish bond.” – Sir William Wallace’s Uncle


Bo Imasiku Sibitwane (AKA) Sha,
Reading this from Bo Lisulo, now you may know exactly what the late Her Ladyship Gladys Mutukwa meant when she said, "Having very little knowledge is damaging." Consequently, this may explain why zambia will take long to attain any semblance of meaningful development in all areas. For this reason I want to officially withdraw from this august forum especially after seeing that no official invitation was extended to me to begin with. I rather mistakenly thought I would gradually benefit from some pockets of intellectual intercourse hereon from a few individuals who would seriously analyze some pertinent national and personal issues but I guess I was too hopeful. What i have noticed is that there is a greater response to postings or emails that are inclined to the sensually profane and ones that appeal more to the waist down wards rather than exciting my cranial department. I was almost excusing myself from this forum, because my brain is very small and am particularly wary of what i feed it with. My brain cells were even beginning to suffer from a rare form of cerebral degeneracy.In retrospect, however I have since resolved that it is our mission as BAROTSES i believe, to rid Zambians and the world of self imposed ignorance on certain matters of great import so as to foster genuine national unity. This is in contrast to the current situation where we just pretend and ignore burning issues brewing under foot. There has been several constitution review commissions that have been held but all have regrettably failed to address this issue conclusively. It really saddens me when grown members of the Homo sapien species willingly decide not to know or not believe or not understand material presented to them in so clear a manner because of their inability to comprehend.When I furnished them with a copy of The Barotseland Agreement 1964 I was rather naively hoping they would be schooled in the art Logical Thought and Reasoning which should serve to help them appreciate what led to their country’s founding. The discerning mind will realize that this Document is the only basis there is for MALOZI to be called Zambians and it is the only thing that will truly reconcile Malozi to the entity called zambia. Is it that important you ask? You betcha! This is a very important document that SHOULD unite ‘us’ as ‘ZAMBIANS’. I would like anyone who sees anything seditious and treasonable about it to write to me, clearly highlighting which parts these are. What Malozi have been belabouring to explain to Zambians with little success is that this document MUST be respected or RESTORED for us to be truly united as a people in a united zambia because as Barotseland we ARE and were a Nation with a National Anthem, National FLAG and National Dress code even before zambia was born take me to court for this if what I have said is a piece of historical inaccuracy .I do challenge thee this very minute!Since we signed it,rather unfortunately, what it means is we must , may or can only co-exist in accordance with the clauses and terms enshrined therein. Long years of passed on misinformation and scary ignorance has perpetrated a totally wrong and incorrect notion about the intentions of Barotse nationals. Mr. Lisulo and many like him, ought to have appreciated this fact by now but NO this is what he writes back, “You lozi chaps- can you stop using a derogatory and colonial term such as Barotseland !!!!!!!!!!! You chaps must know that this term was started by the stupid British colonialists after they failed to pronounce ba-lozi. And do you chaps want WP to be a state ?????? With all the sand there ????????? Guys be serious !!!!!!!BAROTSELAND is the name of our homeland Forever! Choke on that if you may. The ROTSE in Barotseland is our SOTHO language which means PLAIN. So Barotseland is simply “PEOPLE OF THE PLAIN as in BAROTSE PLAINS. Contrary to the way Mr.Lisulo wants to mislead the untaught Zambian masses, it was NEVER suggested by what he calls ‘stupid’ British Colonialists. Guess who is S-T-U-P-I-D Now? May this gentleman know and hopefully realise that the original inhabitants of Barotseland (Aluyana) spoke and speak Siluyana or (kwangwa) may the always enlightened Barotses please correct me where I may over embellish the truth as unlikely as it may be of course.I want to say this to Mr.Lisulo in as plain a language as I can possibly muster for the gentleman to understand. The following languages only sound slightly different because of the diverse ethnic interactions they have encountered in geographical localities its speakers find themselves. Because of this form of dispersion there results a form of linguistic stratigraphy of sorts making Si Sotho, Si Tswana, SiPedi, SiKololo not so different and of which LOZI also happens to be a variant. Are you alright thus far Bo Lisulo? Come on then, do not look so stupefied you have to catch up now. This is not Infinitesimal calculus relax! Silozi or our version of SiSotho has over the years become modified by languages spoken by people who once hailed from Angola and Congo but are now proud inhabitants of Barotseland. Therefore, Basutholand and Barotseland have unbreakable cultural ties, period.Bo Imasiku Sibitwane, with your permission my brother,kindly allow me to ask Bo LISULO if he has the brains God gave a flee(Ok, this is not exactly civil of me to say so I take it back.) you see my current problem is I am at me wits end for I know not whether to joke or be as serious and candid as possible as he may be our Lost brother after all. It is just that I relished the idea of spicing up the point in a courser way. The question to him is,” What language it is or where does he think the Sibitwane in your name comes from?” Like I always say,” The beauty with HISTORY is no matter how hard you try you can NEVER ever change it, unless of course you invented a Time Machine.” Like My favourite reggae poet says, “Search your History and it will show, if you know not from whence you came you are doomed to live in shame.” – Mutabaruka (The greatest radical poet alive, well by my reckoning of course).Have you ever wondered why Barotses are so different? Not better, just culturally different. You Zambians have on countless number of times openly chosen to insult the Zambian Head of State, only material written to the editors in your local tabloids that is carnal and insolent gets preference for publication thus you continuously disrespect the President for the outside world to see and hear, even your young children and marketeers on the streets disrespect him because you celebrate news publications that insult him is such a vile fashion. You have allowed your opinions and reasoning to be shaped by these news papers. It is truly sad in our Barotseland we can never do what you do even when we grossly disagree with the way we are governed as Barotseland. We have channels of respectfully airing our disapproval and seeking redress for most contentious issues. Occasionally though, even our tempers do run high but our better and cultured nature quickly takes over to sober us up. I guess in the end its what makes us who we are,Proud Barotses. TRUTH sure does have this nasty piecing sensation to the ear, does it not my dear sire?While you celebrate your ceremonies the way you do by smearing yourselves in charcoal ash and your wise chiefs drink goat blood, we do not. It is alright, I guess. Hey, which reminds me, Bo Lisulo did you see chief Macha in one of your daily tabloids really ‘struggling’ to fit in and look dignified in the presence of True Royal Splendor? He did look very nice actually. Most honest Zambians have conceded that while they have chiefs what we have as Barotseland is a line of Kings (Litungas) of which the current one is His Royal Highness The Litunga Lubosi Imwiko II. When our Kings usually travel to Buckingham Palace and other Royal residences around the world they are duly received and acknoledged as such. I just thought I could interest with some piece of Royal trivia.As for whether Bo Lisulo is Tonga or a lost brother is something left to conjecture. My wildest guess tells me he could most certainly be a ‘Cuban’ on this I could bet my white African teeth. You know, neither Tonga nor Lozi that kind of thing. For I can not embrace his logic and reasoning as it is so unBarotse-like and I do not want to think of him as Tonga (Tribal cousin)because my brothers are quite brilliant, well the few of them I have had the pleasure of making an acquaintance of.Truth be told, We are BAROTSELAND FOREVER, choke on that. You can inform your shushushu relatives to follow me, but know this today; some of us are beyond intimidation. Even if it came to me stopping a bullet. Zambia shall unite the day WE stop hiding these TRUTHS from the citizenry.This is why when Barotses go to South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho we can freely speak SiLOZI and our brothers understand us without much trouble. Guess who I support when South Africa National football team is playing zambia, with what you call your ‘National’ team? Yes, you are smart after all, you guessed it, it’s a No brainer.Did you know that Channel Africa as a Radio station has a slot that features SiLozi through and through? It is embarrassing to learn that some Mushoooota misinformation government official character once protested to Channel Africa, rather unsuccessfully am glad to add, to cancel SiLozi from this station and replace it with what they thought was a language spoken more in zambia. The South Africans explained that we share more historical ties with Barotseland than he knew. Do you know that when you speak some of these dialects you have, in South Africa the locals there reach to safe guard their wallets!In ending, may I share this universal thought, “Truth crushed to earth shall rise again from the Root, for the Eternal years of God are Hers. But Error, wounded, writhes in pain and dies among its worshipers.”You are right Bo Imasiku Sibitwane when you said to Bo Lisulo,
“Come home son, come, our arms are open for you!”
Before your remaining brains wane off completely. Am actually looking forward to meeting you in person of this am confident as I believe and strongly so that, “There is order in the Cosmos”
Namakando Nalikando Sinyama
Barotse Patriot
Central Africa
“I tell you a truth, liberty is the best of all things, my son, never live under a slavish bond.” – Sir William Wallace’s Uncle


BAROTSELAND BAROTSE, a people and country of South Central Africa. The greater part of the country is a British protectorate, forming part of Rhodesia. The Barotse are the paramount tribe in the region of the Upper Zambezi basin, but by popular usage the name is also applied to contiguous subject tribes, Barotseland being the country over which the Barotse paramount chief exercises authority. The present article treats (1) of the people, (2) of the country, (3) of the establishment of the British protectorate and of subsequent developments.

1. The Barotse. - These people, originally known as Aalui, have occupied the extensive plain through which the Zambezi passes from 14° 35' S. to 16° 25' S. throughout the reigns of twenty-two successive paramount chiefs and therefore approximately since the commencement of the 17th century. Previously, for an indefinite period, they dwelt on the Kabompo river, 200 m. to the N.E. of their present country, and here the descendants of a section of the tribe which did not migrate still remain, under the name Balokwakwa (men of the ambuscade), formerly known as Aalukolui. That the Barotse at a still more remote period emigrated from the far north-east is indicated by vague tradition as well as by a certain similarity in type and language to some tribes living in that direction, though the fact that natives from Mashonaland can understand those at Lialui (the Barotse capital) has led to the assumption by some writers that the Barotse are an offshoot of the Mashona. The variety in type among the Mashona and the homogeneity of the Barotse would rather point to an opposite conclusion.

Early in the 19th century a section of the Basuto tribe known as Makololo trekked from the south of what is now the Orange River Colony and fought their way through Bechuanaland and the Kalahari to the land of the Barotse, whom they ultimately subdued. Their chief, Sebituane, who as an administrator and general was far in advance of his compeers, established the rule of his house for some forty years, until about 1865 an organized rebellion of the Barotse led to the almost complete extinction of this Makololo oligarchy and the reinstatement of the original dynasty. It was the Makololo who gave the Barotse their present name (Rotse, plain - Burotse, country of the plain - Murotse, man of the plain - Marotse, people of the plain, the latter being inaccurately rendered Barotse, Ba being the equivalent of Ma in certain other languages) .

The Barotse proper are comparatively few in number, but as is inferred from the fact that for many generations they have held in sway a country two and a half times the size of Great Britain, they are the intellectual and physical superiors of the vast majority of the negro races of Africa. Very black, tall in stature, deep in chest and comparatively speaking refined in feature, a Barotse is readily distinguishable amidst a mixed group of natives. Being numerically small they form an oligarchy in which, with few exceptions, each man holds rank in a chieftainship of which there are three grades. Next to the chiefs rank their descendants who have not themselves acquired chief's rank and hold an intermediate position as freeborn; all others, whether members of the subject-tribes or prisoners of war, being, up to 1906, mere slaves. This class was also graded. Slaves might own slaves who in their turn might own slaves, the highest grade always being directly responsible to some Barotse chief. As a reward of gallantry or ability the paramount chief occasionally conferred chief's rank on individuals not of Barotse birth, and these ipso facto assumed the name and privileges of the Barotse. It was a counterpart of the feudal system of Europe in which every grade from king to serf found a place. In 1906 the paramount chief, by proclamation, abolished the state of slavery, an act which, however, left untouched the predominant position of the Barotse and their rights to chieftainship. The paramount chief shares with a queen (Mokwai) his authority and prerogatives. The Mokwai is not the wife but the eldest sister of the ruling chief. With his death her privileges lapse. Theoretically, these co-rulers are equal, neither may promulgate a national decree without the assent of the other, but each has a capital town, councillors and absolute authority in a province, the two having joint authority over all other provinces. In their code of laws the Barotse show an advance on the standard of probably any other African negro state. By right, an accused chief is tried by his peers, each of whom in rotation from junior to senior gives his verdict, after which the president reports the finding of the court to the paramount chief, who passes sentence. As to their religious beliefs the Barotse imagine the sun to be the embodiment of a great god whose sole care is for the amelioration of man. Him they worship, though more pains are taken to appease evil spirits, in whose existence they also believe, to whom every evil to which man is heir is attributed.

The spirits of ancestors - especially of deceased chiefs - are also objects of worship. Christianity, of a Protestant evangelical type, was first introduced into the country in 1884 by Francois Coillard and has made some progress among the people, among the converts being Letia, eldest son and heir of Lewanika, the paramount chief.

2. Barotseland. - This term includes, in the sense of the country in which the authority of the paramount Barotse chief is acknowledged, not only the lands of the Barotse proper, but the territory of fifteen contiguous and subject tribes. This vast territory extends approximately from the Kwito river in the west to the Kafue river in the east, and from the CongoZambezi watershed in the north to the Linyante of Kwando river and Zambezi in the south, and may be divided into three groups :- (a) Central provinces directly administered by the paramount chief from the capital Lialui (a town on the Zambezi), by the Mokwai from Nalolo; and by two chiefs of the blood from Sesheke; (b) Outlying provinces over which, in the absence of a central local system of government, Barotse chiefs administer districts under the direction of the paramount chief; and (c) Tribes over which the local chiefs are permitted to retain their position subject to the payment of annual tribute and to their doing homage in person at Lialui when called upon to do so. With the publication of the king of Italy's award in 1905 in the Anglo-Portuguese Barotse Boundary dispute (see below), the term Barotseland may be said to have acquired a second meaning. By this award the western and part of the northern section of Barotseland as described above were declared to be outside the dominion of the paramount chief and therefore not in the British sphere of influence, while tribal boundaries were complicated by the introduction of a longitudinal and latitudinal frontier. Though this award altered the political boundaries, ethnologically Barotseland remains much as above described. The area of the country under British protection is about 182,000 sq. m.

Excluding the ridge of high ground running east and west which, culminating at a height of 5000 ft., forms the CongoZambezi water-parting, the extreme east (Batoka) and the district in the immediate vicinity of the Victoria Falls throughout which, with local variations, a red laterite clay predominates, the main physical features of Barotseland may be described as a series of heavy white sand undulations covered with subtropical forest vegetation. These are intersected by alluviumcharged valleys through which streams and rivers flow inwards towards the central basin of the Upper Zambezi. There is evidence that this has at one time been the site of a large lake. These valleys, which towards the close of the wet season become inundated, afford rich cattle pasture, the succulence of which prevents cattle losing condition towards the end of the dry season, as is the case in many parts of Africa. There seems to be little or no indication of mineral wealth in the white sand area, but in the north and east there is not only every prospect of a great agricultural and pastoral future but also of considerable mining development. Though basalt predominates in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Falls and large fields of granite crop up on the Batoka plateau and elsewhere, there is every indication of the existence of useful minerals in these districts. Gold, copper, tin, lead, zinc and iron have been discovered.
Much of the area of Barotseland is within the healthy zone, the healthiest districts being the Batoka and Mashikolumbwe plateaus in the east with extreme altitudes of 4400 and 4150 ft. respectively, and the line of the Congo-Zambezi watershed which rises to 5000 ft. in many places. The Zambezi valley from the Victoria Falls (3000 ft.) to the Kabompo confluence (3500 ft.), though involving little or no risk to health to the traveller, cannot be considered suitable for white settlement. Taking into consideration the relative value of altitude to latitude, the plateauland of Barotseland compares very favourably with existing conditions elsewhere, being several degrees more temperate than would be expected. Approximately the mean III. 14 a maximum and minimum temperatures stand at 80 0 and 55° F. respectively, with an extreme range of 100 to 35° and a mean annual temperature of 68° to 70°. The rainfall varies according to district from 22 to 32 in. a year and has shown extraordinary stability. Since 1884, the first year in which a record was taken by Francois Collard, Barotseland has known no droughts, though South Africa has suffered periodically in this respect.
The Zambezi, as would be expected, forms a definite boundary line in the distribution of many species of fauna and flora. In these respects, as well as from an ethnological standpoint, Barotseland essentially belongs not to South but to Central Africa. The great river has also served to prevent the spread from South Africa into Barotseland of such disastrous cattle diseases as tick fever and lung sickness.

3. The Establishment of British Suzerainty. - By the charter granted to the British South Africa Company in October 1889, the company was allowed to establish its rule in the regions north of the Middle Zambezi not included in the Portuguese dominions, and by a treaty of the 11th of June 1891 between Great Britain and Portugal it was declared that the Barotse kingdom was within the British sphere of influence. The dispute between the contracting powers as to what were the western limits of Barotseland was eventually referred to the arbitration of the king of Italy, who by his award of the 30th of May 1905, fixed the frontier at the Kwando river as far north as 22° E., then that meridian up to the 13° S., which parallel it follows as far east as 24° E., and then that meridian to the Belgian Congo frontier. In the meantime the British South Africa Company had entered into friendly relations with Lewanika, the paramount chief of the Barotse, and an administrator was appointed on behalf of the company to reside in the country. A native police force under the command of a British officer was raised and magistrates and district commissioners appointed. In the internal affairs of the Barotse the company did not interfere, and the relations between the British and Barotse have been uniformly friendly. The pioneers of Western civilization were not, however, the agents of the Chartered Company, but missionaries. F. S. Arnot, an Englishman, spent two years in the country (1882-1884) and in 1884 a mission, fruitful of good results, was established by the Societe des Missions Evangeliques de Paris. Its first agent was Francois Coillard (1834-1904), who had previously been engaged in mission work in Basutoland and who devoted the rest of his life to the Barotse. Though always an admirer of British institutions and anxious that the country should ultimately fall under British jurisdiction, Coillard in the interests of his mission was in the first instance anxious to delay the advent of white men into the country. It was contrary to his advice that Lewanika petitioned the "Great White Queen" to assume a protectorate over his dominions, but from the moment Great Britain assumed responsibility and the advance of European civilization became inevitable, all the influence acquired by Coillard's exceptional personal magnetism and singleness of purpose was used to prepare the way for the extension of British rule. Only those few pioneers who knew the Barotse under the old conditions can fully realise what civilization and England owe to the co-operation of this high-minded Frenchman.

Under the Chartered Company's rule considerable progress has been made in the development of the resources of the country, especially in opening up the mining districts in the north. The seat of the administration, Kalomo, is on the "Cape to Cairo" railway, about midway between the Zambezi and Kafue rivers. The railway reached the Broken Hill copper mines, 110 m. N. of the Kafue in 1906, and the Belgian Congo frontier in 1910. From Lobito Bay in Portuguese West Africa a railway was being built in 1909 which would connect with the main line near the Congo frontier. This would not only supply Barotseland with a route to the sea alternative to the Beira and Cape Town lines, but while reducing the land route by many hundred miles would also supply a seaport outlet 1700 m. nearer England than Cape Town and thus create a new and more rapid mail route to southern Rhodesia and the Transvaal. The Zambezi also, with Kebrabasa as its one bar to navigation between Barotseland and the sea, will supply a cheap line of communication. (See RHODESIA.) See David Livingstone, Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (London, 1857); Major Serpa Pinto, How I crossed Africa (London, 1881); F. Coillard, On the Threshold of Central Africa (London, 1897); Major A. St H. Gibbons, Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa (London, 1898), Africa South to North through Marotseland (London, 1904); "Journeys in Marotseland," Geographical Journal, 1897; "Travels in the Upper Zambezi Basin," Geographical Journal, 1901; A. Bertrand, Aux pays des Barotse, haut Zambeze (Paris, 1898); Col. Colin Harding, In Remotest Barotseland (London, 1905); C. W. Mackintosh, Coillard of the Zambesi (London, 1907), with a bibliography; L. Decle, Three Years in Savage Africa (London, 1898). Consult also the annual reports of the British South Africa Company, published in London. (A. ST H. G.)

SOURCE: Classic Encyclopedia